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Research studies

 The uses of artificial intelligence applications to combat racism

Prepared by the researcher

Dr. Shaima Al-Hawari – Professor of public law and public policy- Hassan II University- White House- The Kingdom of Morocco.

Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed – Ph.D Researcher In Media and Communication Science-Minia University.

Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Media Studies : Issue XII – August 2020

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN 2512-3203
Journal of Media Studies
 :To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

Abstract:

Societies have suffered for many years from the spread of a serious social phenomenon that threatens the security and stability of different countries, It is a phenomenon of racism, which is one of the diseases that passes in the bodies of some human beings. It ends all the meanings of love, brotherhood and equality, Racism, as well as its roots, go back a long time since man was created on Earth, Similar to the escalation of protests in the United States after the death of a defenseless black man named George Floilde as a result of a violent attack by a white man from one of the American police officers, some activists in various countries of the world have turned to the applications of artificial intelligence to combat racial discrimination and spread love, brotherhood and tolerance among people, Among the most prominent of these applications: ‘Otter Voice Notes’, ‘Replika’, ‘Brain.fm’, Which can be used through messaging and interactive chat to talk to others about the various problems, As well as sharing artwork, creating music tracks designed by artificial intelligence to improve focus, meditation, sleep and relaxation, and converting audio files between people to text files, In addition to helping users meetings, interviews, lectures and important conversations.

Introduced:

Artificial intelligence has become a reality that not only shares our daily lives but also changes the world around us, as most fields related to our work, health, or entertainment depend on it.

Racism is also one of the pervasive diseases of our time, knowing that it has existed since ancient times and has caused division and wars between people, Where the oppressed group is exposed to the utmost discrimination, marginalization and tyranny only due to the difference in religion, race, color, and other foundations that humans set and adopted in applying their racism, such as language, customs, beliefs, cultures, social classes, Through which the rich robbed the impoverished class ([1]).

In the United States, tensions between the black community and the police in Minneapolis did not begin with the death of George Floyd. It started years earlier. In 2015, protests erupted over the death of Jamar Clarke, 24, who was being pursued by police officers in Minneapolis ([2]),A study of the period following the US presidential elections on November 2 also confirmed that there is an increase in the rate of hate attacks and incitement to hatred in most American states ([3]). Many say that the arrival of US President Donald Trump to the White House has strengthened the thorn of militant groups, while others believe that the problem goes beyond the current US administration, The reported hate crimes have reached (11%).

As the protests escalated in the United States after the death of a defenseless black man named ‘George Floyd’ as a result of a violent attack by the police, Who was arrested for forgery and brutally pressed his head by the officer’s knee until he died later, In a related context, Canadian Prime Minister ‘Jalastin Troad’ stressed that it must stand together against racial discrimination or black racism([4]).

Microsoft has also made artificial intelligence initiatives for Earth, By providing services and support to charitable organizations through grants awarded, strategic partnerships and technology investments ([5]).

And the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, said in the noble hadith, “O people, your Lord is one, there is neither Arab nor better for my Arab than for my Arab, nor for my inferior to an Arab, nor for a red for a black, nor for a black on a red, except for a piety.” I honor you with God.

With the launch of artificial intelligence, many concepts changed dramatically. Instead of people using applications and software, software and people are at one level, So that each of them performs their duties separately as a team within any work, in order to implement many of the basic and important tasks without human intervention in them, which leads to the improvement of a lot of work ([6]).

From the perspective of using artificial intelligence applications to combat racial discrimination: The Sage Foundation has partnered with the Seoul City Institute for Social Justice in South Africa to launch the ‘rAInbow’ program, It is an AI-powered program that helps marginalized groups in society and victims of violence in all its forms ([7]).

The Cognitive Framework:

Artificial intelligence:

Is the ability of digital machines and computers to perform certain tasks that are simulated and similar to those of intelligent beings; Such as the ability to think or learn from previous experiences or other processes that require mental processes ([8]),And artificial intelligence aims to reach systems that are intelligent and behave the way humans do in terms of learning and understanding ([9]),Where these systems provide to their users various services such as education, counseling, interaction, etc ([10]).

Procedurally defined as: The science of building smart software, robots and applications that are used in all areas of life.

The concept of racism:

A set of wrong practices whereby a specific group of people is treated in a tyrannical and different way with the aim of depriving their rights and controlling them as a result of their affiliation with another religion and race ( .([11]

Racism is an expression of the behaviors and beliefs that uphold one class and give it the right to control another class, and rob all its rights of the fact that the second group belongs to a race or religion, The first category gives itself the right to control their own destiny, property and identity ([12]).

Procedurally defined as: Certain practices undertaken by some individuals in society with the aim of raising the value of one category at the expense of another group and controlling it, It also depends on skin color, customs, traditions, and religious beliefs.

Artificial intelligence and helping the scientific community to combat racial discrimination:

Racial discrimination is a very dangerous thing in our lives, and it is one of the reasons for strife and wars leading to discrimination between people, Racism has been known since the beginning of life on the ground, as racism is behavior and beliefs through which it can raise the importance of one category so that it can control another category with the aim of depriving all the rights of individuals, Also, racial discrimination is either by country, origin, race, religion, gender, and skin color, in addition to racism of social classes, which is the most prevalent in the world ([13]).

Especially after the killing of a black man named ‘George Floelde’ at the hands of a white man from the American police.

And in Britain, a video of social media circulating moments in which a British policeman pressed the neck of a man during his arrest was posted on social media, And this is modeled after an incident reminiscent of the tragedy of ‘George Floelde’, the black man whose departure sparked a wave of protests in the United States.

The police also stated that the two officers were referred to the Police Conduct Office, after the video was posted on the communication sites, As one of them was suspended from work and imposed restrictions on the other’s participation in field operations ([14]).

From the perspective of the uses of artificial intelligence technology to combat racial discrimination: Researchers from the universities of “Pennsylvania” and “Colombia”, in the north of the United States of America, sought to exploit artificial intelligence to combat racial discrimination, Especially since the discriminatory treatment of individuals has always been a cause of long-term concern in civilized societies, Researchers from the two universities also devised a technique that reveals the existence of discrimination with regard to certain characteristics, such as gender or race, based on a technique known as “counter-reality algorithms”, So that artificial intelligence systems are trained, to be able to make the best guess, about what constitutes discrimination, and what does not constitute discrimination ([15]).

Applications of artificial intelligence and its use in combating racism:

It is applications that help to understand and know data and information in various magazines ([16]).

Given the importance of these applications in daily life, it has become necessary to use them and benefit from them in combating racial discrimination in some Arab and European societies, And that after the accident of the killing of ‘George Foyeld’ at the hands of an American police officer, The AI applications used to combat racial discrimination are:

  • Application: Otter Voice Notes: It is an application that allows users to easily record and take voice notes, as it relies on artificial intelligence techniques to understand and capture long audio conversations that occur between multiple people and convert them into text files, and share them with others, It is therefore an ideal choice for journalists and students, as it helps them to be more focused and cooperative in meetings, interviews, lectures and other important conversations, It also allows you to take pictures for inclusion with the text, and play the audio at adjustable speeds, in addition to exporting your text notes in TXT, PDF or SRT files or copying them to other applications, As well as exporting audio notes as an MP3 file, it also integrates with iOS and Google calendars to remind you to record your meetings, and set the conversations automatically.
  • Application Replika: It is an interactive chat robot based on its artificial intelligence that can be used to talk to other people or real people, This application is also considered one of the messaging applications, but in this case you are writing a virtual person who depends on artificial intelligence, It is designed to deal with you as if it were a real person, and in doing so it provides you with a safe place to talk about your thoughts and problems, It is also available to you 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and is characterized by the ability to understand your thoughts and feelings and improve your mood, Where you can learn new skills in dealing and working to achieve goals such as positive thinking and managing stress.
  • Application fm: It is an application that provides you with a set of music tracks designed by artificial intelligence to improve focus, meditation, sleep and relaxation within 15 minutes of daily use. All you have to do is install the application and choose the goal that you want to achieve, such as focus, relaxation, meditation or sleep, and then the application will start playing music tracks according to your choices.

Researchers believe that this application can be used to create music tracks to combat racial discrimination.

  • Application Deep Art Effects: It is an application that allows you to image your artwork into the help of machine learning algorithms and using artificial intelligence with neural networks, The app also features the simulation of patterns of some of the greatest history painters such as ‘Van Gogh, Monet, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Picasso’, And by applying these patterns to your photos, the application provides you with more than 40 filters for the styles of famous artists, In addition to sharing artwork that you created on social media accounts and through messages.

Researchers also believe that this application can be used to create pictures and artworks that combat racial discrimination in its various forms and share it with others.

Sources and references:

  • Arabisk London (2020). Immediate sanctions on two British police officers to avoid a repeat of the “George Floyd” incident in London, available at the following link: https://arabisklondon.com/arabic
  • BBC News (2020). George Floelde: Why was the city of Minneapolis caught in the wake of his death ?, available at the following link: https://www.bbc.com/arabic/world-52860952
  • BBC News (2020). Hate crime rates against minorities in America rise during the Trump era, available at the following link: https://www.bbc.com/arabic/41067955
  • J. Copeland (2019). Artificial intelligence, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, Available at the following link: https://www.britannica.com/technology/artificial-intelligence
  • Dina Mostafa (2020). What is racism? Available from the following link on May 18, 2020: https://mawdoo3.com/
  • Emirates Union (2019). Artificial intelligence in the anti-discrimination service, available at the following link on: https://www.alittihad.ae/article/41929/20192
  • Hello Canada (2020). She wants to condemn racism in America and says that it is unfortunately also present in Canada, available at the following link: https://www.halacanada.ca/news/view/
  • Ira Katznelson and Mark Kesselman ( 2014). The Politics of Power : A Critical Introduction To American Government”, 3rd.ed, San Diego, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Poblishers, 1987, PP 13-14.
  • microsoft (2020). Artificial intelligence to serve humanity and the world, Available at the following link: https://news.microsoft.com/ar-
  • Mohamed Wafik (2017). The most important benefits of AI coming soon, available at: https://vetogate.com/Section_931
  • Mohamed Abu Khleif (2014). Definition of racism: The Anti-Racial Safety Organization, available at the following link: http://www.aoadlibya.org/article/
  • techopedia (2019), Artificial Intelligence (A1), Available at the following link: https://www.techopedia.com/definition/190/artificial-intelligence-ai
  • tutorialspoint ( 2019) Artificial Intelligence), Available at the following link: https://www.techopedia.com/definition/190/artificial-intelligence-ai

[1] Dina Mostafa (2020). What is racism? Available from the following link on May 18, 2020: https://mawdoo3.com/

[2] BBC News (2020). George Floelde: Why was the city of Minneapolis caught in the wake of his death ?, available at the following link: https://www.bbc.com/arabic/world-52860952

[3][3] BBC News (2020). Hate crime rates against minorities in America rise during the Trump era, available at the following link: https://www.bbc.com/arabic/41067955

[4] Hello Canada (2020). She wants to condemn racism in America and says that it is unfortunately also present in Canada, available at the following link: https://www.halacanada.ca/news/view/

[5] news.microsoft (2020). Artificial intelligence to serve humanity and the world, Available at the following link: https://news.microsoft.com/ar-

[6] Mohamed Wafik (2017). The most important benefits of AI coming soon, available at: https://vetogate.com/Section_931

[7] news.microsoft (2020). Artificial intelligence to serve humanity and the world, Available at the following link: https://news.microsoft.com/ar-

[8] B.J. Copeland (2019). Artificial intelligence, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, Available at the following link: https://www.britannica.com/technology/artificial-intelligence

[9] techopedia (2019), Artificial Intelligence (A1), Available at the following link:  https://www.techopedia.com/definition/190/artificial-intelligence-ai

[10] tutorialspoint ( 2019) Artificial Intelligence), Available at the following link:  https://www.techopedia.com/definition/190/artificial-intelligence-ai

[11] Dina Mostafa (2020). What is racism? Available from the following link on May 18, 2020: https://mawdoo3.com/

[12] Mohamed Abu Khleif (2014). Definition of racism: The Anti-Racial Safety Organization, available at the following link: http://www.aoadlibya.org/article/

[13] Mohamed Abu Khleif (2014). Definition of racism: The Anti-Racial Safety Organization, available at the following link: http://www.aoadlibya.org/article/

[14] Arabisk London (2020). Immediate sanctions on two British police officers to avoid a repeat of the “George Floyd” incident in London, available at the following link: https://arabisklondon.com/arabic

[15] Emirates Union (2019). Artificial intelligence in the anti-discrimination service, available at the following link on: https://www.alittihad.ae/article/41929/20192

[16] Ira Katznelson and Mark Kesselman ( 2014). The Politics of Power : A Critical Introduction To American Government”, 3rd.ed, San Diego, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Poblishers, 1987, PP 13-14.

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