Research studies



Prepared by the researche :  Adel Issa Elsosan1 , Prof. Dr. Ir. Atiek Suprapti2 and Dr. Edward E. Pandelaki3

  • 1Doctoral Program of Architecture and Urban, Universitas Diponegoro (UNDIP), Semarang, Indonesia
  • 2Head of Architecture Doctoral Program of Universitas Diponegoro (UNDIP), Semarang, Indonesia
  • 3Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro (UNDIP), Semarang, Indonesia

Democratic Arabic Center

Journal of Urban and Territorial Planning : Twentieth Issue – June 2024

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN (Online) 2698-6159
ISSN   (Print)  2699-2604 
Journal of Urban and Territorial Planning

:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link


Protecting historic sites helps to preserve cultural heritage and can bring in money for the local economy and government. Area conservation is necessary to protect Semarang’s ancient communities from the city’s relentless urban growth. The study’s major focus is on the historical examination of the old Semarang neighborhood, which will become a conservation area. Historical studies employ historical approaches (heuristics, critique, interpretation, and synthesis). Stakeholders from all backgrounds have an interest in Semarang’s Old City. The numerous stakeholders are divided into three groups, with the primary, secondary, and tertiary stakeholders making up the first category. To assist Semarang reach its objective of becoming a World Heritage Site by 2020, the possibilities in the Old City may be investigated. Every participant at Kota Lama Semarang has both personal and group interests that they want to advance.

  1. Introduction

A historic area’s conservation offers a highly promising opportunity for tourist growth as a unique attraction. Similar to the idea of a sustainable city, the idea of urban development appropriate for the requirements of the conservation area is beginning to gain strength (He et al., 2023). The idea of a sustainable city is the growth of a city while giving equal weight to economic, environmental, and cultural heritage preservation. To preserve a city’s cultural and historical character, heritage buildings must be preserved and protected at all costs (Yawer et al., 2023).

The preservation of historic locations serves to safeguard cultural heritage and can provide cash for the local community and administration. In order to safeguard Semarang’s historical neighborhoods from the city’s unrelenting urban expansion, area conservation is required (Yuliati et al., 2023). This protection includes managing the neighborhood’s development so that the neighborhood’s historical and cultural character doesn’t vanish. The Cultural Conservation Law Number 11 of 2010 gives guidelines and assurances for this conservation endeavor.

It is impossible to overestimate the importance of preservation strategies in helping heritage buildings accomplish their conservation objectives. Documentation, upkeep, restoration, and adaptive reuse are just a few of the many actions included in preservation procedures. Any preservation program is more successful when the local community is involved. In order to create methods to promote active involvement, it is essential to understand the elements that encourage or discourage community engagement. Additionally, examining how community engagement affects the accomplishment of conservation objectives offers insightful information for upcoming preservation efforts (Halim & Ishak, 2017). Collaboration is essential for successful preservation and conservation activities. This includes government agencies, heritage groups, local communities, and commercial businesses. The magnitude of these stakeholders’ contributions and the success of their participation in attaining conservation objectives are illuminated by an analysis of their respective roles and responsibilities (Perzolla et al., 2018).

Semarang City, the capital of the Central Java Province and one of Indonesia’s major cities, focuses on three key facets of sustainable urban development. For the community and local government, conservation of historic places that are included in tourist hotspots may be a potential source of income and is the major focus of their growth. The Old City, Chinatown, Pasar Johar, and Kampung Sekayu are just a few of the city of Semarang’s vital places that must be protected in order for it to survive. Semarang’s Old City is a monument to the area’s extensive historical and architectural past. The need of protecting and conserving these historical riches grows as urbanization and modernisation continue to change cities. Since the Old City is a historic location, it needs to be protected from the savagery of urban expansion (Dameria et al., 2022).

Part of that protection includes regulating the development of the area to prevent it from losing its historical character. (Boudiaf, 2019). Currently, development tends to favor the reconstruction of historic structures without taking into account the Old City’s preexisting ideas. Old City may now be empowered through entertainment and tourist media that doesn’t go against conservation principles, allowing the region to support itself while also boosting the local economy and that of the municipal administration. Activities like art galleries, café and music nights, culinary and restaurant establishments, and other things may be given to enliven the neighborhood without sacrificing the idea of the original Old City ‘s face.

This case study examines the use of preservation strategies and how they contribute to the preservation of historical structures in the Old City of Semarang. This study seeks to advance our understanding of how preservation approaches aid in the accomplishment of conservation objectives in historically significant structures. The lessons learned from the case study of Old City Semarang may be applied to similar preservation and conservation initiatives across the world. The goal of this study is to highlight the importance of preservation in preserving the character and cultural history of our cities so that future generations can understand and benefit from the past.

  1. Problem Statement
  2. How does the implementation of preservation practices contribute to the conservation of heritage building in Old City Semarang?
  3. What are the factors influencing community engagement and participation in the preservation of heritage buildings in Old City Semarang, and how do these factors impact the achievement of conservation goals?
  4. How is the role of stakeholders in supporting the achievement of conservation?
  5. Literature Review

Overview of Architecture

To satisfy human wants, architectural works are made with the pursuit of perfect beauty in mind. Although it is challenging to estimate its scale since it is impacted by subjectivity, beauty in architecture is a value that appeals to the sight and intellect. An architect employs shape as a medium to accomplish this. Space, size, color, texture, safety, and comfort are other factors that influence architectural work in addition to form. In terms of construction, building arrangement, efficiency, and economics, an architectural work is strongly tied to human requirements, not just those of art or beauty but also—and this is most important—those of safety and comfort. Because an architect is seen to have the talent and competence in the art of creating or developing structures, it is assumed that they would be able to satisfy these demands (Spence, 2020).

Cultural Heritage Objects

Indonesia is one of the nations with the world’s biggest mosaic of cultural legacy, both visible and unseen, created by human reason or by nature, as well as occasionally by interactions between the two. The variety of this cultural history has its own distinctive characteristics, both in terms of those that develop in particular cultural situations and those that arise through the mingling of cultures both now and in the future. This diversity is a source of inspiration, innovation, and energy. Cultural heritage, or what is generally referred to as heritage, includes not just items but also locations, structures, socio-culture, numerous arts, languages, and the human intellect. These assets range in size from tiny to extremely enormous, like the historical city legacy (Mekonnen et al., 2022).

Buildings with important values (historical, cultural, and scientific), both stand-alone and in the same area as the old city area in several cities in Indonesia, such as in Jakarta, Semarang, Medan, and other cities, are one example of historical heritage that is the result of human creativity, taste, and initiative, where there are several historic structures from the colonial era with historical and cultural significance, cultural legacy created by human labor (Soewarno & Duhita, 2019).

The living monuments in Indonesia can be summarized from a course of Indonesian Architecture which represents every period in the Indonesian history, different forms and technique that reflects the cultural diversity in each region. The contribution of the diverse tradition also has an important role in characterized the Indonesian architecture. This following general chronology of Indonesian Architecture tried to describe all the influences that contribute to the formation of Indonesian architecture (Febriyanti S &Purwestri, 2013).

Not out of nostalgia for the past or an attempt to preserve historical elements, but rather as an effort to become a tool in processing the transformation and vitalization of heritage so that expected to provide a better quality of community life based on the strength of old assets, the existence of these colonial heritage buildings has important meaning for science, culture, and human civilization today (Soewarno & Duhita, 2019).

By Law Number 28 of 2014 about Copyright and the concept of economic rights, Law Number 12 of 2011 concerning Cultural Conservation. One advantage of having a cultural legacy is that the owner or copyright holder may sell it for a profit. In this instance, the use of this economic right is employed to maintain the production and sustain the copyright owner’s economy. Cultural heritage is the overarching outcome of culture as learned behavior or patterns from certain groups of people that are inherited from past generations, altered, and passed down to the following generation (Naibei, 2014).


According to international accords outlined in the Burra Charter or The Burra Charter (1981), conservation is a catch-all phrase for all preservation initiatives. The entire process of maintaining a space to safeguard the cultural significance it holds is known as conservation. The act of caring for and keeping old, worn historical artifacts in order to preserve their durability is another definition of conservation. Keeping “something” up over time in order to transmit the values that are owned to the following generation. Depending on the circumstances and conditions unique to the area, conservation may involve all maintenance operations. A “continuity and change” strategy and financial assurances can both be used to implement conservation. It is underlined that social conservation is oriented toward physical conservation. The four basic components of conservation efforts are: (a) preservation; (b) protection; (c) maintenance; and (d) management. According to UNESCO, the following types of conservation actions are permitted: Restoration, preservation, conservation, reconstruction, and revitalization.

By introducing suitable new uses that might offer historic structures or districts a second life, revitalization attempts to bring back to life a region or portion of a city that was once crucial to life but has experienced setbacks. The physical and financial features of buildings and urban areas are enhanced as part of the process of reviving a neighborhood or section of a city. Physical revitalization is a short-term tactic used to promote an increase in long-term economic activity. Physical revitalization is thought to be able to temporarily enhance the city’s physical state (including its public places), but not permanently (Andres et al., 2021).

As a result, improving and boosting economic activity also known as “economic revitalization” is still important to achieve both environmental and socio-cultural objectives. It is intended that via effective usage, a long-term maintenance and control mechanism would be established for the continued existence of city amenities and infrastructure, therefore doing so is very required. The Burra Charter (2013) describes the revitalization process as a set of extremely complicated actions that go through the following stages: (a). Recognize the importance, (b). Create policies, (c). Manage in line with the policy.

  1. Methodology

The historical analysis of the old Semarang neighborhood, which will be made a conservation area, is the main subject of the study. By using historical methodologies (heuristics, critique, interpretation, and synthesis), historical studies are carried out to shed light on the history and function of the region in the past (Toland & Yoong, 2011). The classification and descriptive analysis of secondary sources included historical data in the form of documents, archaeological data in the form of ancient structures, and anthropological data in the form of collective memory. The findings of this investigation are also connected to the relevant rules and legislation of cultural preservation, this will serve as the foundation for designing designated conservation areas and developing strategies for their preservation, protection, control, and development.

The first step in the study process is to gather historical archaeological data in the Kota Lama region through literary, archival, and map studies to identify the historic structures and historical circumstances that are still present there. Data from primary and secondary sources that were both historical, archaeological, and architectural were categorized and descriptively examined. The findings of this study will serve as the foundation for numerous ideas for the preservation and conservation of the Kota Lama region, as well as for the designation of the area as a World Heritage Site.

  1. Result and Discussion

The implementation of preservation practices contribute to the conservation of heritage building in Old City Semarang

The Semarang City Government has divided the Semarang Old City revitalization project into three phases and is making different attempts to complete them. The first stage is protection, and since the Kota Lama is a historical landmark, it must obtain financial and legal advantages. Conservation or development constitutes the second degree of protection (Kim et al., 2022). The Old Area of Semarang underwent renovation; in 2020, there will only be two stages, with the first stage concentrating on infrastructure and the second stage concentrating on constructing a new landmark in the shape of a museum.

Many of the volunteers or members of the government involved in the administration of the Kota Lama region have taught the local population about the upkeep of cultural heritage sites. In the Johar Market setting, education typically takes the form of telling street sellers selling fresh fish, for instance, that water humidity and the dumping of fish waste have a highly negative influence on the continued existence of the local cultural heritage. Not only should the environment be kept clean, but locals should also be informed on how to care for the historical structures in the Kota Lama region. For instance, stealing garbage cans, drain plugs, and other vandalism-related items. Given that the policy’s shared objective is to advance the City of Semarang to the UNESCO version of the World Heritage site, it is crucial to build a transmission in interpersonal contact to ensure the smooth operation of an established policy (Kruk et al., 2018).

The community’s understanding will ultimately have a greater influence when the Old City is revitalized. If this has been done, then there has never been a case of garbage can or drain cover theft in the Kota Tua neighborhood of Semarang. Building renovations in the Old City area are also not done carelessly, keeping in mind that the TACB (Cultural Heritage Expert Team) and BPK2L (Old City Area Management Agency) hold complete authority over the rules and regulations for the preservation of cultural heritage buildings. This is also true when requesting permission to convert an old structure in Semarang’s Old Town into a large-scale enterprise like a coffee shop, restaurant, inn, etc. The conclusion of this study is that there aren’t many barriers to obtaining licenses for the use of buildings in the neighborhood; as long as everything complies with administrative standards and the laws of the Old Town Area, the permission will be handled right away (Yuliati et al., 2023).

With the government’s consistent efforts from 2017 to 2021, Semarang’s Old City has been effectively revitalized. With the assistance of the City Government through the Ministry of Public Housing, which helped the Mayor of Semarang bring about various improvements to its historical significance, the renovation of the Old City of Semarang started in 2017. The historic City of Semarang is seeing a renaissance and historic structures are being used as a commercial and economic hub. Office, restaurant, café, and tourist-oriented buildings are located away from slum areas where violence is more prevalent. To further highlight the potential of Semarang’s MSMEs to visitors to the Old City of Semarang as an economic and commercial region, the Semarang City Government also uses other buildings as art galleries and showrooms for MSME items. Office, restaurant, café, and tourist-oriented buildings are located away from slum areas where violence is more prevalent. In order to further highlight the potential of Semarang’s MSMEs to tourists to the Old City, the Semarang City Government is also using additional buildings as art galleries and showrooms for MSME items (Yuliati et al., 2023).

Building property rights are one of the issues preventing the growth and preservation of Semarang’s Old Town. The structures in the Kota Lama neighborhood are often built on land that is privately owned. Conservation efforts in the Old City have been complicated by land ownership in the area. Land claims commonly occur in the Old City because landowners’ land certificates are passed down from generation to generation, which makes it difficult to manage the land and buildings and hinders the Semarang City government’s ability to make improvements to the Old City Area. Some property owners even request the revocation of the cultural heritage designation of their structures because they believe it will be challenging for their descendants to sell the structure in the future. In addition, some building owners, according to the Semarang History Activists Community (KPS) leadership, let their structures to be abandoned owing to a lack of cash for upkeep (Gooden & Sas-Rolfes, 2020).

The owners abandoned their structure with the anticipation that it would eventually collapse on its own, allowing them to erect a new structure on top. Another barrier to the development of the Old City Area by the Semarang City administration is the area’s poor environmental condition. Another issue that has to be tackled is the security of the Kota Lama region as a tourist attraction. The continuing flooding issue in Kota Lama is connected to this environmental condition. The Old City was impacted by the tremendous floods that Semarang, a coastal city, suffered in 2013 (Petropoulos et al., 2022).

The factors influencing community engagement and participation in the preservation of heritage buildings in Old City Semarang, and how do these factors impact the achievement of conservation goals

The potential in the Old City of Semarang may be explored to help the area achieve its goal of being a world heritage site by 2020. The Old City of Semarang has a lot of promise and, with the right management and use, may become a tourist destination. The following potentials can be given attention in the future development of the Old City of Semarang based on the findings of the analysis conducted in the field with stakeholders who have an impact on its development:

  1. The Old City of Semarang as a tentative list of the World Heritage

The Old City of Semarang is now being transformed into a city that will be recognized as a world historic site. The Old City of Semarang’s 2020 goal may be supported by the whole potential that it possesses. In addition to Jakarta, which is known as the Old City of Jakarta (Oud Batavia), which has drawn more attention from Indonesians than Semarang Old Town, the Old City of Semarang is one of Indonesia’s historic towns. This is evident from the significant financing Kota Tua Jakarta has received, however despite several submissions to be listed on the World Heritage list, Kota Tua Jakarta has always failed for a number of reasons. With its inclusion on the preliminary list of World Heritage sites, Kota Lama Semarang may be justifiably proud of itself. Since the designation of a region as a World Heritage City would draw attention from across the globe and increase the number of visitors, it is anticipated that, if properly managed, it will boost the region’s economy (Yuliati et al., 2023).

  1. Potential social, economic and cultural activities of the Old Town of Semarang.

The Kota Lama neighborhood of Semarang, a former Dutch colonial fortification, has a distinctive and lovely ambience with towering buildings with European design that are uncommon in other cities, with the Blenduk church as an item frequented by many visitors. A unique feature of Semarang’s Old City that has the potential to draw visitors is its historical significance and sense of scarcity. There are cafes, offices, souvenir shops, and cultural performances in the region, as well as parking lots that are accessible, pleasant, safe, and free of motorized cars. There are also fine, artistic public and social amenities that are adequate (Yuliati et al., 2023).

  1. Revitalization

A revitalization that is advantageous to the growth of Semarang’s Old City Along with safeguarding historical assets, it also promotes entrepreneurship and the growth of the creative industries to increase tourism (Yuliati et al., 2023).

  1. The Old City of Semarang has the potential to become the image of the City of Semarang

Given that Semarang’s Old City neighborhood served as the city’s fetal stage of development, it has the potential to become the representation of the city. It is vital to promote sustainable and intact upkeep of the built environment and architecture in order to maximize this potential because Semarang Historic district is a historic district in Semarang that serves as an early stage of the city’s development. The entire Old City of Semarang is a conservation area due to its high architectural, artistic, scientific, and cultural significance. Old City of Semarang, an ex-fortress city, Kampung Melayu, Chinatown, Kauman, Kampung Skinan, and the Brick/Sam Poo Kong structure Area are all categorized as historical places. As a conservation area, it is not permitted to modify the general shape of the structure (Yuliati et al., 2023).

The role of stakeholders in supporting the achievement of conservation

There are many diverse stakeholders in Semarang’s Old City, each with their own goals and duties. On a more ecological level, the courtyard of the building and the scale of the ancient city’s urban organic design scale helped to temper the harsh climate and showed how architecture changed over time and between generations. In an urban setting, the degree of public, semi-public, private, and semi-private ownership also affects the width of a roadway. Due to the absence of a legal authority, property owners frequently kept roadways in good condition on their own. Antiquities, museums, historic sites, and ancient towns are all protected by the legislation. According to Article 7 of the legislation, no public or private organization is allowed to organize or modify cities, villages, adopt a plan to split land for buildings, construct new roads, or make any changes to structures. Old ones in historic locations, except in agreement with the appropriate authorities and in accordance with the restrictions outlined in this law’s executive rules (Elsos, 2023).

The government, business owners, communities or people who live in the Old City of Semarang, BPK2L, various communities, tourists or people who visit the Old City of Semarang, small merchants or street vendors, etc. are all considered stakeholders in the City of Semarang. Because the perspective of stakeholders on the redevelopment of the Old City of Semarang is the study’s aim. Stakeholders who are thought to directly affect the Old City of Philadelphia’s redevelopment efforts and have a part in them. Semarang Old Town Stakeholders are as follows (Kurniawati et al., 2020):

  1. Government: A group of public entities, both from the regional government and the central government, that are interested in managing and developing the Old City of Semarang as a city entity that acts as a lever for the identity and welfare of the main city and is integrated with other entities other cities and regions.
  2. Entrepreneurs: Privately held businesses and industrial organizations in Semarang’s Old City prioritize profit. a collection of for-profit businesses that engage in commercial and/or industrial operations in Semarang’s Old City, both singly and collectively.
  3. Kota Lama Community: Local community entity groupings that will gain from or experience effects from the development and building of the Kota Lama Semarang.
  4. BPK2L: The top organization on the scale of Semarang’s Old City. The Semarang Old Town Area’s internal management structure, which includes a number of representatives from the local government, the business sector, building owners, academics, etc.
  5. Community: An organization with several members that was established as an interorganization during the construction of Semarang’s Old City. groupings of local and non-local community organizations that serve as beneficiary groups for the growth and development of Kota Lama, Semarang, as well as groups that specialize in the development of certain activities that fill in and enhance the area’s development efforts.

The many stakeholders are grouped into three groups, with the major, supporting, and important stakeholders making up the first group (Maj, 2015). Stakeholders with an interest in Semarang’s Old City include the government, businesspeople, locals, and BPK2L.

Because BPK2L is the highest body on the scale of the Old City of Semarang, it is extremely fitting that important stakeholders are executive components based on their level (legislative and agency) who have the legal ability to make decisions. The government and Cipta Karya Center of the Ministry of Public Works and Public Housing in Semarang, Central Java are categorized as the main stakeholders because the government is responsible for making policies and the Cipta Karya Center of the Ministry of Public Works and Public Housing in Semarang, are directly involved in the creation of programs, projects, and policies. As a link in the realization of government initiatives like the restoration of Semarang’s Old City. Entrepreneurs, communities, and communities fall under the category of supporting stakeholders because they are the ones who benefit from and are impacted by the development of the Old City of Semarang. Supporting stakeholders are groups that are not directly involved in policies, programs, or projects but can still make contributions by offering opinions (Amoako et al., 2022).

  1. Conclusion

Stakeholders with an interest in Semarang’s Old City come from a variety of backgrounds. The many stakeholders are split into three groups, the first of which includes the primary, secondary, and tertiary stakeholders.

The potential in the Old City of Semarang may be explored to help the area achieve its goal of being a world heritage site by 2020. The Old City of Semarang has a lot of promise and, with the right management and use, may become a tourist destination. Several potentials have been identified based on the findings of the analysis conducted in the field with stakeholders who have an impact on the development of the Old City of Semarang.

Every stakeholder in Kota Lama Semarang has individual and communal interests that they wish to pursue. The interests of each stakeholder may be observed in the Old City of Semarang’s stakeholder system; for example, the government is a significant stakeholder in the Old City of Semarang.

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