Research studies

The technologicalgovernance of sports media and communication: A strategic approach to keeping pace with globalization in the sports field

 

Prepared by the researcher : Moussa djokhdem

Democratic Arabic Center

Journal of Media Studies : Twenty-Fifth Issue – November 2023

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN 2512-3203
Journal of Media Studies

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Abstract

This research paper aims to address one of the most prominent topics of the day on the governance of information and communication technology: a strategic approach to keeping pace with globalization in the sports field. It focused on the conceptual structure of governance coming to us from the economic perspective and my organizations and linking it to current information and communication technologies and their governance to develop them as a strategic framework that helps keep pace with, accompany and track the multiple manifestations of globalization, including the sports field in particular.

This research paper attempts to focus on the conceptual frameworks of governance and governance of information and communication technology and to address its objectives and functions, leading to its manifestations in the current media reality.

The governance of information and communication technology, which is one of the developments and the result of the communication revolution in all fields, and its projection on the sports field due to the achievements of this field in light of the uniqueness of globalization, which critics believe is working to replace science, effort, work and production through information and communication technology.

Introduction:

The governance of information and communication technology was not accidental or spontaneous. It was the result of rapid and successive developments witnessed by the current world based on the dynamic stages of the development of communities, from an agricultural society based on agricultural production, to an industrial society that was characterized by the emergence and continuation of the industrial revolution in Europe, leading to the modern society or the so-called information society, which was accompanied by all developments in communication technologies and computers and its integration with the nature of current economic systems.

The collapse of the economies of economic companies has had a significant impact on the search for ways and means to bridge the rift of these organizations in order to regain their position and competitiveness in front of the most powerful companies in a huge market that has never mercy on the weak. Therefore, it was necessary for experts in the field of management and economics to seek mechanisms to ensure the survival and continuity of their organizations, especially in light of the widespread emergence of new concepts such as globalization, modernity and postmodernity…etc.

This current situation was created by what is called governance that measures the productivity of an individual over a certain period and indicates the extent to which he contributes to achieving the goals of the administrative unit in which he works.

However, the matter has not remained the case. Organizations have stressed the need to pay attention to information and communication technology as a subsidiary system or complementary element to the governance of the establishment and one of the keys to the success of organizations. Rather, they focused on the need for its governance. It has become one of the basic dimensions of corporate governance and has received great attention at all levels, whether governmental, legislative, regulatory, and business enterprises, in order to improve the performance of enterprises, increase the value of owners, manage risks associated with information technology, and the emergence of several legislations regulating its use such as electronic signature, communications, information circulation, and the issuance of international standards for protection Information is ISO 27001 in 2005, which is called information protection systems, which has led to the need to pay attention to the application of IT governance as a system in a branch of organizational governance. Therefore, the following general question can be asked: What are the objectives, functions and aspects of the governance of information and communication technology to keep pace with globalization in the sports field?

  • Study questions:
  • What are the most important conceptual approaches to governance?
  • What are the conceptual approaches to the governance of information and communication technologies?
  • What are the objectives and functions of the governance of information and communication technologies to keep pace with globalization in the sports field?
  • What are the aspects of the governance of information and communication technologies to keep pace with globalization in the sports field?
  • A conceptual approach to governance:
    • The concept of governance:

The word “Governance” has becomevery frequent in recent times. It has been dealt with in more than one sense. It has been translated into Arabic as rule, governance, control, control or governance, as well as a method of practice, management style, behavioral discipline, and finally governance. The term “governance” preserves the root of the word “HCM”. It has the weight of “effectiveness” and includes the meanings of governance and control, whether through an internal regulatory body or through an external regulatory body. [i]

There is no consensus in the literature on a unified definition of the term governance. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) defines governance as: “the system through which companies are managed and their business controlled.” The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) also defines it as: “a set of relationships between company managers, board of directors, shareholders and other stakeholders.” Another definition of governance revolves around the way the company is managed and the mechanism of dealing with all its stakeholders, starting with the company’s customers, shareholders and employees – including the executive management and board members – and ending with the mechanism of dealing with the community as a whole.[ii]

In general, governance is a means or management system to establish a straight path and obtain serial work for the benefit of all. In business terms, governance is a method or system for protecting the capital investments of shareholders by formulating and implementing a strategy that develops and exploits the strategic assets used to produce continuous competitive advantages and value for shareholders in the long term, all legally and ethically.[iii]

Governance means the existence of systems that control the relations between the main parties in a company (board members, executive management, shareholders… etc.) in order to achieve transparency, justice, fight corruption, grant the right to hold company management accountable to protect shareholders and ensure that the company works to achieve its long-term goals and strategies.[iv]

  • The emergence of governance:

The need for governance has emerged in many advanced and emerging economies over the past few decades, especially for private companies to achieve high and continuous rates of economic growth. The expansion of the size of these projects has led to the separation of ownership from ownership. These projects have started to seek less expensive sources of funding than banking sources and have turned to the capital markets. This has helped the liberalization of financial markets in the world. There has been an unprecedented increase in cross-border capital transfers, the expansion of the size of companies and the separation of ownership from management due to weak mechanisms to control the actions of managers, and to the occurrence of many companies in financial crises, most notably the countries of Southeast Asia and the late nineties. After that, the crises followed, the most prominent of which is the crisis of the two companies “Enron Worldcom in the United States.[v]

 As well as Europe, the first of these crises was the one that hit Southeast Asian countries, including Malaysia, Korea and Japan in 1998. As a result of this crisis, many giant companies experienced financial distress that almost overthrew them. This called for setting rules of governance to control the work of all stakeholders in the company. The importance of governance has increased as a result of the tendency of many countries in the world to switch to capitalist economic systems in which they rely heavily on private companies to achieve high and continuous rates of economic growth.[vi]

The expansion of the size of these projects has led to the separation of ownership from management. These projects have started to seek sources of funding that are less expensive than debt, and have turned to the capital markets. This has been helped by the liberalization of financial markets in the world. Capital transfers across borders have increased in an unprecedented manner. The expansion of the size of companies and the separation of ownership from management have led to weak mechanisms for controlling the actions of managers and causing many companies to fall into financial crises.[vii]

These crises have prompted the world to pay attention to governance. Accordingly, governance rules and controls aim to achieve transparency and justice, and grant the right to hold the organization’s management accountable, leading to the protection of all rights holders and policyholders, taking into account the interests of work and workers, and reducing the abuse of power other than the public interest, leading to investment development, encouraging its flow, developing savings, maximizing profitability, and providing new job opportunities.[viii]

  • Governance objectives and benefits:
    • Governance objectives: The Abu Dhabi Governance Center summarizes several objectives, the most important of which are:[ix]
  • Transparency: Transparency is one of the advanced modern concepts in governance, which must be carefully managed because of its importance to the company and its stakeholders. Transparency means openness, abandoning ambiguity, hypocrisy and misinformation, and making everything verifiable and sound vision.
  • Accountability: Shareholders have the right to hold the executive management accountable for their performance. This is guaranteed by law and governance regulations. Accountability also ensures the responsibility of executive management before the board of directors and the responsibility of the board to shareholders.
  • Responsibility: Governance regulations aim to raise a sense of responsibility among both parts of management (the board of directors and executive management) and to ensure that each member of the board of directors acts with a high degree of professional ethics. Liability also recognizes the civil rights of shareholders and encourages cooperation between the company and shareholders in various matters including profit, job creation and economic sustainability.

Equality: Equality means equality between small and large investors. It also means equality between local and foreign investors alike. The owner of a single share has the same rights as the owner of a million shares, such as voting, participating in the General Assembly, holding the board of directors accountable, a share of the dividend distribution, etc.

  • Governance benefits:[x]
  • Governance encourages institutions to make optimal use of their resources.
  • Governance helps the company achieve sustainable growth and encourage productivity.
  • Governance reduces the cost of capital for the company as banks grant loans with lower interest rates to companies that apply governance systems compared to companies that are not committed to governance.
  • Governance facilitates the process of controlling and supervising the company’s performance by defining internal control frameworks, forming specialized committees, and applying transparency and disclosure.
  • Governance contributes to attracting foreign investments, as foreign investors will be attracted to the shares of a company that applies governance regulations as an investment in a committed and transparent company, so the element of uncertainty is lower compared to other companies.
  • Governance stabilizes the capital markets.
  • A conceptual approach to the governance of information and communication technology:

2.1 The concept of information and communication technology:

It is defined as: “ the sum of the different techniques, tools, means or systems used to process the content or content to be delivered through the mass, personal or organizational communication process, through which information and audio, written, filmed, drawn, audiovisual, printed or digital data are collected (through electronic computers), then store these data and information, then retrieve them in a timely manner, then publish these communication materials, messages, audio visual, printed or digital contents, transfer them from one place to another, and exchange them. This is a manual, automated or electronic technique covered by this development. [xi]

Today’s technology has emerged and spread after the development of computers with great capabilities in storing and retrieving information quickly. The latter has provided media production with all the elements of dazzling sound, video and instant editing. The use of computers has resulted in the emergence of a new technology, the Internet for the transmission and circulation of information.[xii]

Dr.Ali Ali Habishstates that information technology includes all elements (devices, equipment, computers, basic programs, systems, personnel, organization, as well as the general climate of society). Which interact together to achieve better results than before, helping to raise the overall efficiency of society and thus raise and improve the standard of living.[xiii]

The researcher also adds that “the concept of information and communication technology emerged after the post-Cold War world witnessed a phase of technological development in which three results and conclusions were mixed:[xiv]

  • The information revolution:

It consists of the massive explosion of knowledge, the multiplication of intellectual production in various fields, and the emergence of the need to achieve maximum control over the flow of information and make it available to interested researchers and decision makers as soon as possible and with the least effort by using contemporary methods and programs in organizing information that rely primarily on computers and using communication technology to support information institutions.

  • The revolution in the means of communication:

Modern communications technology, which started with wired and wireless communications, through television and television texts, and then rely on satellites and optical fibers. Its horizon is still undefined. In other words, it is a set of different techniques, tools, means or systems that are used to address the content or content that is to be delivered through the mass, personal, organizational, collective or intermediate communication process.

C- The revolution in the field of electronic computers:

It means the endless development in the production of different information systems and in the management of information systems and networks. In fact, the definition of information technology includes the meaning of the marriage between computer technologies and communication technology. In one form, it provides for the acquisition, reduction and processing of information in its various forms and storage containers, whether printed, filmed, audio, visual, magnetic or laser, and broadcasting it using a combination of electronic information, calculators and remote communication devices.

2.1.1. The characteristics of communication and information technology:

The most prominent characteristics of the current communication technology are:[xv]

Interactivity: meaning that there is a series of communicative acts in which an individual can take a person’s location and perform his communicative actions. The sender receives and sends at the same time, as well as the receiver. Callers are called participants rather than sources, thus introducing new terms in the communication process such as bilateral practice, exchange, control.

– Non-public: It means that a communication message can be addressed to one individual or a specific group, not to large audiences as was the case in the past. It also means a degree of control over the communication system so that the message is delivered directly from the producer of the message to the beneficiary.

– Synchronization: means the possibility of sending and receiving messages at a convenient time for the individual user and does not require all participants to use the system at the same time. For example, in email systems, messages are sent directly with the producer of the message to its receiver at any time without the need for the receiver of the message to be present at the time of sending it.

– Mobility and mobility: using means of communication and calling from one place to another while moving , such as the mobile phone, the car or plane phone, the phone built into the wristwatch. There is a photocopier weighing several grams, a video device placed in the pocket, a fax device placed in the car, and a mobile computer with a printer.

– Transferability: awareness of the ability of means of communication to transfer information from one medium to another, such as techniques that can convert an audible message into a printed message and vice versa. It is on its way to achieve an automated translation system whose introduction appeared in the French Minitel system.

– Connectivity: It means the possibility of connecting communication devices with a greater variety of other devices, regardless of their manufacturer or the country in which they are manufactured, by setting technical standards for these devices to be agreed upon between these companies.

– Popularity or spread: It means the systematic spread of a system of means of communication around the world and within each class of society. Each means appears at first as a luxury and then becomes a necessity. We refer to this in the phone, followed by facsimile. The more devices used, the more valuable the system is for all parties concerned.

– Global internationalization: the new basic environment for means of communication is a global international environment, so that information can follow complex paths and track the paths on which capital flows electronically across international borders back and forth from the farthest place in the Earth to the lower in fractions of a second, in addition to tracking the course of international events anywhere in the world.

  1. The concept of governance of information and communication technology:

The researchers “Nasser Shaaban Ibrahim Al-Sawa and Mohamed Abdel Fattah Ali Ibrahim” refer to (08) concepts related to information and communication technology, which are summarized as follows:[xvi]

  • Broadlbent-1998definesit : “It is the organizational ability to control the formulation and implementation of an IT strategy and guide (guidance) to an appropriate direction in order to achieve competitive advantages.”
  • StevenDe Haesand Win Van Grembergen defineit as: “theorganizational ability of the board of directors, executive management and IT management to control the formulation and implementation of an IT strategy and to ensure the integration of business with information technologies.”
  • It is: “Structuring relationships and processes to guide and control the project to achieve the goals of the project by adding value to it with a balance between risk and return on information technology and its operations.”
  • It is: “ Encouraging the desired behavior in the use of information and technology.”
  • These are: “ decision rights and an accountability framework to encourage desirable behaviors in the use of information and technology.”
  • It is: “A framework that supports the efficiency and effectiveness of the management of information resources (such as individuals, funding, and information) to facilitate the achievement of the objectives of the institution.
  • It is: “ a series of processes that help companies use a system of decisions to move information technology from a cost center to a profit center”.
  • It is: “ The responsibility of the Board of Directors and Executive Management. It is an integral part of project governance and consists of leadership, organizational structures, and processes that ensure that enterprise information technology endorses, promotes and supports the organization’s strategies and goals.”
  1. Thegovernance of communication and information technology as a strategic framework to keep pace with globalization in the sports field:

3.1.The objectives of IT governance as a strategic framework to keep pace with globalization in sports

Researcher “Mohamed Abdel Hafez” indicates that the governance process aims at three goals that fall on three levels as follows:[xvii]

  • At the level of the organization:
  • Creating an appropriate climate of trust and ethical dealing.
  • Raising the level of performance of employees and investing their abilities and capabilities.
  • Assisting the organization in setting standard performance rates that enable it to retain a workforce with outstanding skills and abilities.

B- At the level of managers:

  • Develop good relations with employees and get closer to them to identify their problems and difficulties at work.
  • Encourage managers to develop their skills and intellectual potential so that they can reach a sound and objective assessment of the performance of their followers.
  1. At the level of the working individual:
  • Motivate employees to work diligently, seriously and sincerely so that they can get the respect and appreciation of their superiors.
  • Employees feel fair and that their efforts are taken into consideration.

Regarding the purpose of information technology is to prevent business disruption, increase operating efficiencies, increase positive momentum, create or strengthen strategic assets and achieve competitive advantages. The primary purpose of all these efforts is to add value to the organization. The IT Governance Institute believes that IT governance aims to guide its efforts to ensure that IT performance meets the objectives:[xviii]

  • Coordination and integration between the objectives of technology and the objectives of the enterprise and the realization of the desired benefits.
  • Using information technology to help the enterprise by taking advantage of opportunities and increasing benefits to the maximum extent possible.
  • Responsible use of IT risks.
  • Appropriate management of IT risks.

Therefore, we find that the main goal of IT governance is to raise the level of feasibility of using information technology, and that implementing the governance of the latter helps the organization achieve competitive advantages for the organization, which ultimately leads to increased profits and maximizing their value. IT governance also seeks to achieve a set of goals:

  • Ensure that the IT strategy is integrated with the enterprise strategy, which contributes to generating the real value of the establishment.
  • Verify that the application of information technology has achieved the desired results by comparing cost to return.
  • To effectively control the performance of information technology and develop key performance indicators.
  • Maximize the return on investment in information technology, leading to the establishment enjoying a distinct competitive position for its competing companies.
  • Understand the roles and responsibilities of the board of directors, the executive management and those responsible for developing and implementing the governance system.
  • Ensure full disclosure of the entity’s financial reports, current and projected IT risks, and that its sources are managed and used efficiently.
  • Ensure the effectiveness of IT services to communicate the strategy to all departments of the enterprise, leading to the efficiency and effectiveness of internal operations

3.2.Functions and aspects of IT governance as a strategic framework for keeping pace with globalization in sports

3.2.1. Thefunctions of IT governance as a strategic framework to keep pace with globalization in the sports field:[xix]

  • Governance encourages institutions to make the best use of their resources.
  • Governance helps the company achieve sustainable growth and encourage productivity.
  • Governance reduces the cost of capital for a company as banks grant loans with lower interest rates than companies that apply governance systems compared to companies that are not committed to governance.
  • Governance facilitates the process of controlling and supervising the company’s performance by defining internal control frameworks, forming specialized committees, and applying transparency and disclosure.
  • Governance contributes to attracting foreign investments as foreign investors are attracted to the shares of a company that applies governance regulations, as it is an investment in a committed and transparent company. Therefore, the element of uncertainty is lower compared to other companies.
  • Governance stabilizes the capital markets.

3.2.2. Aspectsand manifestations of IT governance as a strategic framework to keep pace with globalization in the sports field:

The governance of sports information and communication technology, especially in light of the current globalization environment, is a major challenge for it. The urgent need for it has become more than necessary due to the phenomenon of globalization, which some researchers consider to be an “old system in a tight dress” as well as what the latter has created.

Keeping up with the governance of information and sports communication technology with globalization leads us to trying to find a general concept of media globalization in light of the role of images, contents and transnational symbols through the media and information in promoting globalization and unifying the world. The attempt to find a general concept for it is noted that it has been characterized by a sharp polarization between two currents, namely:[xx]

– The first trend: enthusiastically and unreservedly supports the globalization of the media and highlights its advantages as it supports the free flow of information and the right of communication, and provides the public with unlimited opportunities for freedom of choice between media and information.

In the context of this trend, several voices have emerged, including differences in approaches and general views. There are those with a technological approach who focus on the rapid and continuous technological progress in the field of information and communication causing immediate changes in the dimensions of space and time and related social experiences, as well as preparing for a new awareness and separating geographical borders and identity.

There are those who have a post-modern approach, the most famous of which is Anthony Giddens, who believes that postmodernity is a radical version of modernity, as well as between it and globalization. Globalization is the expansion of modernity from society to the world. “Giddens” defines globalization as: the intensification of social relations worldwide in ways that make local events form due to events that occur at a long distance and vice versa. In this context, “Giddens” discussed the globalization of the media as a pressure of time and place, which is a key feature in the contemporary world. He pointed out that “media globalization is the extension or expansion of geographical areas with similar content, This is an introduction to a kind of cultural expansion. “Giddens” stressed that technological means of communication have made it possible to separate place from identity, jump over cultural and political boundaries, and reduce feelings of belonging or belonging to a specific place. “Giddens” stressed the importance of the media in creating and amplifying facts based on images and symbols.

In addition to Giddens’s contributions, there is the “neoliberal owners” approach, which focuses on defining globalization as a greater concentration of media ownership, vertical integration, new technology, and easing restrictions. This will create new opportunities for consumers, reduce the cost of technology, and create new jobs. Competition will be in the interest of the consumer (the audience) in light of the continued struggle between global capitalism (major multinational companies) and the nation-state in the field of culture and media — including sports.

– The second trend strongly opposes the globalization of the media and rejects what is said about its advantages. It considers it a denial of multiculturalism and a support for profit and loss values and market mechanisms in the field of information, communication and information, in addition to attacking the freedom of the media and the right to communicate, and delegating the authority of the state to multinational monopolistic companies.  Among the pioneers of this trend are “Herbert Schiller” and “Noam Chomsky”. “Schiller” defines the globalization of media as: “the concentration of the media in a number of capitalist blocs (transnational) that use the media as an incentive for consumption worldwide. “Schiller” asserts that the Western advertising method and the content of the media lead to the global expansion ofconsumption culture by introducing foreign values that obliterate or remove national or national identities.[xxi]

In the same context, Chomsky believes that the globalization of the media is the huge increase in advertising, especially the advertising of foreign goods, and the concentration in the ownership of international media, and hence the decline in diversity and information in exchange for the increase in advertising. Globalization is the expansion of attacks on nationalities through giant comprehensive and authoritarian companies motivated primarily by interest in profit and forming the public according to a special pattern. The public is addicted to a lifestyle based on artificial needs, with the fragmentation of the public, and the separation of each individual from the other. The public does not enter the political arena and destabilize or threaten the system of power or control in society.

Therefore, the concept of media globalization, including the field of sports media, is: a process aimed at increasing the rapid and continuous capabilities of the media and information to overcome political and cultural boundaries between communities thanks to the provision of modern technology and the integration and integration of media, communication and information in order to support the unification and integration of world markets on the one hand, and achieve gains for giant multinational media, communication and information companies at the expense of reducing the authority and role of the state in the media and cultural fields on the other.

Conclusion:

The governance of information and communication technologies has become more than necessary to cope with the challenges of globalization in all fields due to the complexity of the fields of globalization and the globalization of media and sports communication in particular, especially in accordance with the intellectual clash and the controversy between thinkers about the feasibility of globalization through the two aforementioned currents.

Therefore, the governance of information and communication technologies as a framework for keeping pace with globalization in the sports field and what is related to the specificity of investments in media industries in particular. No one can deny the specificity of the media project, even if it has economic aspects. However, we cannot ignore the social and cultural roots of this project and the extension of these roots to all institutions concerned with building people in all systems. The question that arises in this regard is: can the economic aspects of the media project be combined and integrated at the same time in light of the contradictions of the global liberal system. Here everyone agrees on The effects of addition and consolidation tend to be more negative than positive because of the following:[xxii]

  • Increased pressure on media organizations
  • The multiplicity of forces that control the performance of media organizations after the rise in operating expenses.
  • The financial difficulties that media organizations are beginning to face.
  • Investment in the media is one of the investment rings in other fields of industry.
  • The increasing trend towards merging media organizations and concentrating ownership has led to monopoly.
  • The trend towards the globalization of the media through giant multinational companies and institutions.
  • The dominance of the market concept over the movement and objectives of media systems, their relation to other social systems and the public, and the impact of the concept on the movement of internal elements and media content.
  • Modern media concepts conflict with the social and cultural roles of the media.
  • Taking sides with economic powers and funding sources is more than biased towards the media audience.
  • Media is the result of a product that requires huge investments. Private capital cannot accept such investment because it is impossible to own information. Therefore, society must produce information as long as its production process contradicts the logic of private capital.

the reviewer

[i]– Ahmed Salam Abdel Ati, Electronic Governance, Taiba Publishing and Distribution Foundation, Alexandria, Egypt 2021, p. 44.

[ii]– Bassam bin Abdullah Al-Bassam, Governance in the Public Sector, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2017, p. 59.

[iii]– Ahmed Salam Abdel Ati, previously mentioned reference, p. 47.

[iv]– Abu Dhabi Governance Center, previously mentioned reference, p. 05

[v]إ Elias Khalidi, “Determinants and Standards of Governance,” International Scientific Conference: Administrative Globalization in the Age of Digital Technology (December 115-17, 2022), Algeria, p. 11.

[vi]– – Abu Dhabi Governance Center, previously mentioned reference, p. 06.

[vii]– Ibid., p. 06

[viii]– Elias Khalidi, previously mentioned reference, pp. 13-14.

[ix]– Abu Dhabi Governance Center, previously mentioned reference, p. 11

[x]– Ibid., p. 12

[xi]– Siham Al-Shajiri, Media Economics, 1st edition; United Arab Emirates: University Book House, 2014, pp. 261-262

[xii]– Suzan Al-Kalini, Communication and Media Technology, 2nd edition; Cairo: Dar Al Nahda Al Arabiya, 2016, p. 7.

[xiii]– Mahmoud Alam El-Din and Mohamed Taymour Abdel-Hasib, Basics of Information and Communication Technology and Media Documentation, 1st edition; Cairo, 2003, p. 178

[xiv]– Siham Al-Shujairi, previously mentioned reference, p. 262

[xv]– Ibid., pp. 271-273

[xvi]– Nader Shaaban Ibrahim Al-Sawah, and Muhammad Abdel Fattah Ali Ibrahim, previously mentioned reference, pp. 25-30.

[xvii]– Muhammad Abdel Hafez, The Governance of World Powers, 1st edition; Alexandria: Dar Al-Fajr for Publishing and Distribution, 2011, pp. 07-08

[xviii]– Nader Shaaban Ibrahim Al-Sawah, and Muhammad Abdel Fattah Ali Ibrahim, previously mentioned reference, p. 43

[xix]–  Abu Dhabi Governance Center, previously mentioned reference, p. 12

[xx]– Muhammad Shoman, “The Globalization of Media and the Future of the Arab Media System,” Alam Al-Fikr Magazine, Kuwait: National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters, No. 02, 1999, pp. 121-159.

[xxi]– Ibid., p. 120.

[xxii]– Siham Al-Shujairi, previously mentioned reference, p. 364

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