Research studies




Prepared by the researcher : Nora M., Rehan1, Ghada M., Hussein2

  • 1 Assistant Professor, Head of architecture department, Ahram Canadian University Cairo, Egypt
  • 2 Professor, Helwan University, Faculty of Engineering, Architectural Engineering Department, Cairo

Democratic Arabic Center

Journal of Urban and Territorial Planning : Seventeenth Issue – September 2023

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN (Online) 2698-6159
ISSN   (Print)  2699-2604 
Journal of Urban and Territorial Planning

:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link


As our cities grow and densify at the same time, there is an increasing need for connecting with nature. If we aren’t careful, the city will be nothing more than glass, steel, and concrete. As a result, more attention must be paid to urban scales, with a focus on biophilic cities that are both sustainable and resilient. Biophilic urbanism improves resilience while also presenting fresh viewpoints on how natural systems ought to be included into cities. By incorporating nature into the architecture of urban roadways, biophilic streets take the heart of biophilic urbanism into consideration. At this point, a critical question is raised; can we make our urban streets more resilient to the point where they are ‘future-proofed’? The answer to this query serves as the focus of the paper’s primary research topic. This study focuses on two important topics from this angle. Firstly, a theoretical study of biophilic streets in a more sustainable way, biophilic design, urbanism, and resilient cities. Secondly, analyzing and evaluating the renewal of traditional international ones to determine the most crucial elements of the biophilic streets. The research shed light on (Southwest Montgomery Green Street Concept Plan, Portland, and Oregon), (mobility, infrastructure management, energy management, street furniture, storm water management, and activities) to emphasize the direct integration of nature into streets. Finally, it suggests a framework to develop an urban street (Al-Alfi Street) in Cairo, Egypt, by applying the Biophilic street categories and criteria to create a wide range of social, economic, and environmental benefits.


Alors que nos villes s’étendent et se densifient en même temps, le besoin de se connecter à la nature se fait de plus en plus sentir. Si nous n’y prenons pas garde, la ville ne sera rien d’autre que du verre, de l’acier et du béton. C’est pourquoi il convient d’accorder une plus grande attention aux échelles urbaines, en mettant l’accent sur les villes biophiliques qui sont à la fois durables et résilientes. L’urbanisme biophilique améliore la résilience tout en présentant de nouveaux points de vue sur la manière dont les systèmes naturels devraient être intégrés dans les villes.

En intégrant la nature dans l’architecture des routes urbaines, les rues biophiliques prennent en considération le cœur de l’urbanisme biophilique. À ce stade, une question cruciale se pose : pouvons-nous rendre nos rues urbaines plus résistantes au point de les rendre “à l’épreuve du temps” ? La réponse à cette question constitue le principal sujet de recherche de ce document. Cette étude se concentre sur deux sujets importants sous cet angle. Tout d’abord, une étude théorique des rues biophiliques de manière plus durable, du design biophilique, de l’urbanisme et des villes résilientes. Deuxièmement, l’analyse et l’évaluation du renouvellement des rues internationales traditionnelles afin de déterminer les éléments les plus cruciaux des rues biophiliques. La recherche a mis en lumière (Southwest Montgomery Green Street Concept Plan, Portland, et Oregon), (mobilité, gestion des infrastructures, gestion de l’énergie, mobilier urbain, gestion des eaux pluviales et activités) afin de mettre l’accent sur l’intégration directe de la nature dans les rues. Enfin, il propose un cadre pour développer une rue urbaine (Al-Alfi Street) au Caire, en Égypte, en appliquant les catégories et les critères de la rue biophilique afin de créer un large éventail d’avantages sociaux, économiques et environnementaux.


Biophilic urbanism appears to be an efficient approach to encouraging the growth of nature in cities, not only among rigid buildings, but also through and over them, in ways that positively affect the interaction between humans and nature while gaining advantages from natural services. According to Wilson EO in Biophilia, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984, streets have historically served as the center of urban public life because they offer the areas and routes needed for close social interaction Because of their increased social and economic significance, streets are now seen to be much more than merely locations for people to move around. This study aims to incorporate biophilic elements into the revitalization of existing ones to improve the environmental component.


Urban streets had now become a health hazard, according to higher levels of congestion and air pollution in urban areas—which often lack greenspace—and their long-term impact on our lives. Streets must be viewed for much more than mobility.


The three approaches that make up the research methodology are theoretical, analytical, and applied investigations. The initial stage of this paper’s research was to identify the notion of biophilic urbanism and biophilic streets. This is followed by an analysis of the revitalization of one of the traditional streets. (Southwest Montgomery Green Street, Portland, Oregon) is regarded as Portland’s most ambitious and creative green street project, with national and international recognition. Then, it applies this framework to (Al-Alfi Street, Cairo). Finally, the paper proposes a paradigm for integrating nature within the renewable streets which is based on the analytical research to create a wide range of social, economic, and environmental benefits.


Biophilic streets can be the core of economic, social, and environmental functions of biophilic urbanism by incorporating nature into a street redesign to find an effective framework to deal with the negative effects of climate change, and environmental degradation.


Erich Fromm, a German psychologist, created the term biophilia in 1973 which is described as “love of life.” Biophilia promoted the belief that being in touch with nature is important for human physical and mental health (Beatley T and Newman P 2013). Following that, E.O. Wilson, a sociobiologist and myrmecologist at Harvard University, popularised the term “biophilic,” which is derived from the word “biophilia.” In his significant work, Biophilia (1984), American scientist E.O. Wilson increased research on the subject, creating and popularising the idea of biophilia as people’s innate propensity to focus on activities that are similar to those found in living things and their underlying love for all forms of life. In both nature and the built world, there are unique geometrical patterns that have a positive and uplifting impact on people’s physical and mental health. As a result, these characteristics can be incorporated into designs to raise the standard of living in cities. This method, which is founded on a direct line of connection between people and the natural world, affirms the need to incorporate natural processes into the planning of developed settings (Salingaros NA…2015).


Biophilic design aims to realize the benefits of human-nature contact in the modern built environment. (Kellert S, Calabrese E2015, Kellert SR, Heerwagen J 2008, Kellert S, Finnegan B 2019), and incorporate nature-internally and externally-into urban areas, infrastructure, and buildings and structures. (Beatley T.2010) (As shown in figure 1).

Biophilic design is an accepted solution to some of the environmental challenges, it strives to promote environmentally integrated project alternatives at many scales, including carbon dioxide emissions, urban heat island effect, rehabilitation, particulate matter filtering, revival of lost habitats, and improved urban species diversity, and enables biological ecosystems to restore in urban environments, in addition to humanistic goals and advantages. (Beatley T.2016, Newman P. 2014, Newman P,Beatley T 2017, Newman P, Jennings I 2008). Beatley (2011) applied the idea of biophilic design to urban areas, creating and promoting biophilic cities. The idea of “biophilic urbanism” was introduced as a fresh approach to planning and urban design that aims to deliberately incorporate nature into the urban fabric and has the ability to turn lifeless urban areas into regenerative and hospitable living spaces.(Beatley T.2010, Newman P. 2014).


In many nations around the world, the idea of biophilia as an urban perspective is prevalent. It is recognized as a crucial remedy for raising living standards and achieving urban sustainability. For instance, several towns have transitioned from being “Garden Cities” to becoming “Cities in a Garden”, implementing the biophilic urbanism approach. John Newman (2014). Food production, clean air and water, lower storm water runoff, and urban cooling are just a few benefits of biophilic urbanism. The success of this strategy has been attributed to numerous initiatives, including streetscape designs (creating a continuous tree canopy above all major roadways), park linkages (connecting all significant green spaces with a linear island park network), horticultural parks, and community gardens. To reach biophilic places, people were more inclined to go far than to reach non-biophilic areas. Gochman, Sam (2015). With the potential to turn lifeless urban environments into places that are regenerative and supportive of life, biophilic urbanism was offered as a new method of urban planning that aimed to incorporate nature into the cities (Beatley T. 2010, Sam Gochman (2015). The main goals of “biophilic urbanism” are to strengthen the bond between city people and urban nature and to continue to value nature’s everyday presence in cities (Kellert S, Finnegan B, 2019).


Unchecked urbanization, climate change, and political instability are just a few of the problems that cities and the people who live in them are confronting today. The term “resilience” refers to cities’ ability to withstand future shocks and stressors, such as those caused by climate change and exhausted oil and fuel sources, and to survive crises. As a result, a resilient city considers suitable form and physical infrastructure to be prepared for the physical, social, and economic issues that come with carbon-based fuel depletion and climate change. A resilient city can assess, plan, and act to prepare for and respond to all dangers, expected and unexpected. According to Campanella and Godschalk, 2011, a resilient city can be defined as a city, which is greater than the sum of its structures, but which may only be as resilient as its populace. Urban resilience can be improved by creating a more biophilic city. Godschalk D.R., Campanella T.J., 2011).


A Biophilic City is defined as a city with a rich natural resource; it is a city that values (T. Beatley, 2011) Protects, restores, and grows its natural resources, and aims to develop deep links and daily interaction with the natural world. So, in terms of urban design, biophilia is about seeing cities as places that already contain a lot of nature and as places that, with bold vision and consistent practice, can grow even greener and richer in the nature they already have (Newman P, Beatley T, Boyer H 2017) to appreciate nature’s multidimen-sional elements by preserving and developing it within the city. (Newman P, Jennings I.2008).


The category of needs for biophilic planning and design is determined by the scale of the building, block, street, neighborhood, community, and region (as shown in figure 2)

Figure.2.Biophilic city design elements across scales

Source: T. Beatley, Biophilic Cities: Integrating Nature into Urban Design and Planning, DOI10.5822/978-1-59726-986-5_4, © Timothy Beatley 2011








Urban streets can be thought of as living organisms that are constantly changing, adapting, and reacting to their environment. A Street’s function and growth are influenced by several factors, including the street’s history, current environmental, social, architectural, and structural conditions, policies, regulations, existing infrastructure, project size, zoning, land use, and the possible usage of the street as a location. These elements provide the framework for redesign strategies that take into account a biophilic street’s qualities.


There are some elements that were created to organize the characteristics of a biophilic street. These elements are mobility, stormwater management, energy management, Infrastructure, street decor, activities, and vegetation that promote biodiversity. These components serve as the foundation for a biophilic street and take into account the following design objectives, design functions, and biophilic street characteristics: 2008; Newman P, Jennings I.

10.1. Mobility:

Because the primary goal of streets is to facilitate mobility, biophilic strategies tend to play a major role in traffic management. Traffic calming methods should be used to meet safety criteria on biophilic streets. Trees and shrubs have a psychological effect on drivers, causing them to slow down. The success of traffic calming schemes is determined by the location, development pattern, techniques, and even the type of vegetation.

10.2. Stormwater Management:

Another biophilic characteristic for biophilic streets is stormwater management. Rooftops have been turned into huge and intense gardens by biophilic designers. The transformation of these large impermeable surfaces has become an essential part of biophilic streets and can be viewed as a substitute for stormwater management programmes. (Getter K., Rowe B., Kew B., Pennypacker E., Echols S., 2014). Rainfall has little to no impact on the green walls since the gutters of the stormwater management system block the majority of it. The effectiveness of the green roof and wall systems is increased as a result of collecting run-off from the roof and using it for drip watering. 2009 Winemasters).

10.3. Energy Management:

Biophilic street energy management solutions aid in cooling a city where leads to better walkability, urban economics, and cooling of structures adjacent to the street. Green walls and roofs are examples of biophilic structures that can be installed directly on buildings. The air temperature in street canyons, as well as the need for cooling and heating of buildings, can be reduced by installing such structures

10.4. Biophilic Infrastructure:

The majority of the filthy original run-off has been retained by biophilic infrastructure by using bio-retention and filtration. To demonstrate its value, it is then put to a real-world street redesign project. (Concept for a Biophilic Street).

10.5. Furniture:

Many biophilic streets across the world have included green shelters such as bus and bicycle stations, street art and play installations, as well as furniture, to allow interaction between plant and animal life and support the establishment of a balanced ecosystem.

10.6. Activities:

The rise in activity and mix of usage makes the streets safer for everyone. Biophilic streets are intended to promote optional activities, facilitate the formation of a sense of community, and reshape the neighborhood’s identity. Streets with a wide range of daily biophilic activities are more likely to provide opportunities for teaching, learning, and entertaining. Play equipment, interactive furniture, art installations, attractive spatial additions, games, and other types of social interaction can all be found on wide streets. As a result, the best-executed biophilic streets benefit the environment while simultaneously encouraging more people to get outside and socialize through shared activities.

10.7. Vegetation:

Planters can help define and separate locations by adding color, texture, and interest to a cityscape. They contribute define building entrances while also adding visual value. Plants placed on sidewalks should not restrict pedestrian traffic, while plants placed on street corners should not restrict drivers’ vision.


Biophilic streets are seen as one of the most essential stages toward a more comprehensive approach to a more harmonious and healthier future for all. With biophilic street approaches, water-sensitive, biological resources, regenerative, and resilient urban design have the potential to completely transform the perspective on the future of our urban streets.

11.1. Case study: Southwest Montgomery Green Street Concept Plan, Portland, Oregon

Figure No. (3) Shows Site plan of Southwest Montgomery Green Street

Connecting the west hills to the Willamette River

One of Portland’s most innovative green street initiatives is SW Montgomery Green Street. The project demonstrates how downtown streets may be developed and modified even in densely populated regions to create, include, and maintain dynamic pedestrian spaces in addition to completely controlling stormwater flow. The SW Montgomery Green Street won the Analysis and Planning category of the 2012 National ASLA Professional Award of Honor. When he was employed with NNA Landscape Architecture, Kevin Robert Perry served as the project’s principal designer.

This plan looks at creating a highly pedestrian-oriented streetscape that incorporates a variety of stormwater strategies along the streetscape including stormwater planters, green walls, green roofs, surface stormwater conveyance, creative downspout disconnection, and paving.

11.2. The Main Planning Goal Of SW Montgomery Green Street:

The city’s downtown region’s primary planning aim was to engage the area, enhance community identity, enhance the pedestrian environment, and emphasize the sustainability objectives. Because SW Montgomery Green Street passes through the Portland State University campus, students are encouraged to participate in evaluating the performance of the green infrastructure. To encourage local community engagement, public education about the passageway was included into the design in the form of educational signage. The implemented plan, which included significant biophilic street elements, was intended to act as a new place-making prototype for future Portland downtown streetscape projects.

11.3. Project Goals:

– Providing a primary means of interconnections between many facilities such as the College, fountains, recreation areas, theatres, museums, theaters, and shopping; close to many city center business area job opportunities; and connecting to the greater metropolitan region through the subway line, future light rail, and various transit mall bus routes.

– Extending the Urban Center Plaza effectiveness as a vibrant urban plaza along the whole project zone.

– Using SW Montgomery Green Street to connect the West Hills to the Willamette River, and SW Montgomery Green Street to connect the entire region to an eco-district.

11.4. Specific Green Street Goals:

To achieve specific green street design goals for SW Montgomery project corridor, including:

– Create broader pathways and “curbless” traffic conditions for the SW Montgomery project corridor. Auto-trafficked blocks should have active shops with one traffic lane and one parking lane, with the flexibility to block for pedestrian-only in special events.

 -Introduce a visually continuous landscaping feature that serves as a “storm – water spine” or common thread spanning numerous blocks, forming a “green” east/west link between downtown and the Portland State University district. Figure No. (4)

Figure No. (4) Shows the existing condition and proposed for SW Montgomery Green Street

This project shows how a major urban street may be redesigned to improve environmental conditions, stimulate environmental learning, support community identity, and community engagement, and keep business districts healthy. Figure No. (5)
Figure No. (5) Shows how the major urban redesigned to improve environmental conditions

11.5. Southwest Montgomery Green Street Analysis:

SW Montgomery Green Street was analyzed through a set of points which include entry features, storm water management, planting, fixable furnishing, Paving options, Balancing parking, Creating spaces & activities, Mobility, Water features, and Energy management. Table No.1

Table No. (1) Shows SW Montgomery project corridor

Source: Authors from Southwest Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills with the Willamette River October 2009

Elements: Implementation
1-Entry features










To create a unique Green biophilic Street in such a dynamic city, the entry characteristics might provide an art feature that represents sculpture, architecture, landscape, decoration, and varied education.
2- storm water management




2-Storm water management










– Roof and wall greening systems

– Rainwater infiltration is facilitated by permeable paving.

– Permeable surfaces allow for infiltration.

– Storm water planters and rain gardens provide absorption and bio filtration.

– Bio-filters for purification (plants). -Recycling using the green roof and wall systems. Surface conveyance of storm water is a primary goal for Green Street.

3-Planting options (cool, warm season) 1-Cool Season Grasses Example: Deschampsia cespitosa- Festuca idahoensis “Siskyou Blue” – Fescue -Juncus patens- Rush
2-Deciduous Shrubs &Trees Example: -Cornus sericea

-Redtwig Dogwood

-Populus tremuloides

-Oregon White Oak

3-Warm Season Grasses Example: Schizachryrium scoparium, Panicum virgatum ‘Heavy Metal’ , Heavy Metal Switchgrass , “Gracillimus”.



4- Conifers Examples: Chamecyparis nootkatensis .Alaskan Yellow Cedar Pinus ponderosa Ponderosa Pine Thuja plicata Western Redcedar.
Follow Table No. (1) Shows


4-Fixable furnishing



– New street furnishings, some of which are more or less permanently set, and others, Portable planters, for example, will assist give flexibility in tiny spaces.

5-Paving options


  – Paving material serves as a guiding tool for walkers, bicycles, and vehicles.

– Paving choices add color, texture, and sound to a space, and they can even help tell a story.

– Paving styles may differ from block to block to assist in the creation of a Block’s charisma.

6-Palancing parking



– Pedestrian and bicycle access were prioritized above vehicular access.

– To ensure bicycle and pedestrian safety, streets were constricted, certain blocks were blocked to through traffic, and speed limits were decreased.

7-Creating spaces and activites


– Interpretive signs and plates.

– Ecological systems that are exposed.

– Educational and research purposes are served by green infrastructure.

– Shopfront activation promotes community life.






Follow Table No. (1) Shows


8-Mobility This linear space will allow people to travel by foot, bike, car, and vehicle.Green street elements comprise covered or clustered bike parking, as well as “Juice Points” alongside parking areas for electric vehicle charging. [23]
9-Water features[i]


-Along the street, water serves as a connecting element. A series of existing fountains along the street contribute to the district’s overall identity.

– Three linear stone rills and lakes stimulate huge staircases and ramps three blocks east in the lively hardscape of the Urban Center Plaza.

10- Energy



– Energy savings related to the treatment of ecological runoff.

– The ability of green walls and roofs to insulate.

– Landscaping can help control air temperature

11.6. Conclusion of Southwest Montgomery Green Street:

This project shows how a major urban street may be redesigned to enhance ecological conditions, stimulate environmental learning, support community identification and neighborhood participation, and preserve vibrant commercial areas. The street provides public engagement places and functions as a transit corridor, while also accomplishing much more due to its biophilic aspects. From this point of view, we can conclude 10 points as a framework for achieving green biophilic street as follow: Table No. (2)

Table No. (2) Shows 10 points as a framework for achieving Green Biophilic Street

Source: Authors

2 Green infrastructure stormwater management
3 Planting options
4 Fixable furnishing
5 Paving options
6 Balancing parking
7 Creating spaces & activities
8 Mobility                            
9 Water features
10 Energy management                 
  1. Applied Study:

Cairo Governorate is studying converting several streets in Khedivial Cairo’s downtown district for pedestrian-only and closing some streets in the evening and opening them for pedestrians only. This area appears as a painting on the wall of time in the city of millions, which was built by Khedive Ismail, one of the rulers of Egypt, in the nineteenth century, and its buildings belong to the Parisian architectural styles.

12.1. Project Goals:

The project aims to make a qualitative leap in the downtown area of the Egyptian capital, by improving its visual image and maximizing its architectural character, by preserving the facades of its distinctive buildings, and removing all the distortions caused to it, and organizing the shop signs in a way that suits the general character of the area, as well as showing the distinctive buildings in the area at night by lighting their facades in a way that shows their distinctive elements and unique architectural character.

12.2. Al-Alfi Street:

Al Alfi Street, a pedestrian street branching off Talaat Harb Street, was reopened after it was upgraded, increasing its efficiency and undergoing maintenance. Some issues were discovered during the analysis of Al-Alfi Street, which must be addressed to redesign this vital urban street to a biophilic street. Figure No. (6)

Pedestrian corridor
Sitting area
El Alfi Street
Main plaza
Figure No. (6) Shows Al Alfi Street a pedestrian branching from Talaat Harb Street,Cairo, Egypt

Source: Authors

12.3. The Analytical Studies of Al-Alfi Street:

An analytical study of Al-Alfi Street was carried out, including the points of the framework.Table (3)

Table (3) Shows Al Alfi Street a pedestrian branching from Talaat Harb Street,Cairo, Egypt

Source: Authors

1-Entry features


There isn’t any art feature nor landmark nor fountain in street entry






6-Palancing parking
Limited to pedestrians only, no bike parking available
2-Storm water management



Untreated rainwater infiltration system






7-Creating spaces -activites


Activities are limited to seating in cafeterias only


3-Planting options

(cool, warm season)


No view

No plants







Overlapping circulations for different uses

No bike lanes

4-Fixable furnishing


book vs book





9-Water features[ii]


There isn’t any water features
Follow Table (3) Shows Al Alfi Street a pedestrian branching from Talaat Harb Street,Cairo, Egypt

Source: Authors

5-Paving options


One paving material for different uses






10- Energy management


No energy system- no green walls

Nor green roofs

12.4. The Analytical Studies of Al-Alfi Street:

The research dealt with an analytical study on Al-Alfi Street before and after the framework application as following: Figure No.(7)



Framework application

                      1 Entry features
                      2 Green  infrastructure Storm water management
                      3 Planting options
                      4 Fixable furnishing
                      5 Paving options
                      6 Palancing parking
                      7 Creating spaces & activites
                      8 Mobility
                      9 Water features
                      10 Energy management




 framework application

                      1 Entry features
                      2 Green  infrastructure Storm water management
                      3 Planting options
                      4 Fixable furnishing
                      5 Paving options
                      6 Palancing parking
                      7 Creating spaces & activites
                      8 Mobility
                      9 Water features
                      10 Energy management
Figure No.(7) Shows Al Alfi Street before and after framework application

Source: Authors


Biophilic urbanism was introduced as a new approach to urban design that intended to integrate nature into the urban areas. This paper proposes that by redesigning urban streets into biophilic streets, biophilic urbanism can be given a new dimension by incorporating environmental techniques into the redesign of urban streets. The research suggests a framework that can be used by designers and planners for redesigning urban streets to be biophilic streets by adding the biophilic design elements absent in traditional streets such as (entry features, stormwater management, planting, flexible furniture, parking areas, activities, mobility, water features, and energy management) to achieve the resilient urban design and enhancing the city’s economic, social, and environmental aspects.

  2. Wilson EO. Biophilia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1984
  3. Beatley T and Newman P 2013 Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities Sustainability 5 3328–45.
  4. Salingaros NA. Biophilia and healing environments: healthy principles for designing the built world. New York: Terrapin Bright Green LLC; 2015.
  5. Kellert S, Calabrese E. The practice of biophilic design. 2015. Accessed 16 Sept 2019.
  6. Kellert SR, Heerwagen J, Mador M. Biophilic design: the theory, science, and practice of bringing buildings to life. Hoboken: Wiley; 2008.
  7. Kellert S, Finnegan B. Biophilic design: the architecture of life. A 60-minute video. 2011. Accessed 17 Sept 2019.
  8. Beatley T. Biophilic cities: integrating nature into urban design and planning. Washington, DC: Island Press; 2010.
  9. Beatley T. Handbook of biophilic design. Washington, DC: Island Press; 2016.
  10. Newman P. Biophilic urbanism: a case study on Singapore. Aust Plan. 2014; 51:47–65
  11. Newman P, Beatley T, Boyer H. Resilient cities: overcoming automobile dependence. Washington DC: Island Press; 2017.
  12. Newman P, Jennings I. Cities as sustainable ecosystems. Washington DC: Island Press; 2008.
  13. Peter Newman (2014) Biophilic urbanism: a case study on Singapore, Australian Planner,51:1, 47-65, DOI: 10.1080/07293682.2013.790832
  14. Sam Gochman, (2015), seeking parks, plazas, and spaces – the Allure of biophilia in cities, terrapin bright green, New York City.
  15. Campanella T.J., Godschalk D.R., 2011. Chapter 12. Resilience. In the Oxford Handbook of Urban Planning, edited by Rachel Weber, Randall Crane, and Oxford University Press.
  16. Newman P, Beatley T, Boyer H. Resilient cities: overcoming automobile dependence. Washington DC: Island Press; 2017.
  17. Newman P, Jennings I. Cities as sustainable ecosystems. Washington DC: Island Press; 2008.
  18. Beatley, Biophilic Cities: Integrating Nature into Urban Design and Planning, DOI10.5822/978-1-59726-986-5_4, © Timothy Beatley 2011
  19. Getter K, Rowe B. The role of extensive green roofs in sustainable development. HortScience. 2006; 41:1276–85.
  20. Kew B, Pennypacker E, Echols S. Can green walls contribute to Stormwater management? A study of cistern storage green wall first flush capture. J Green Build. 2014; 9:85–99.
  21. Winemasters M. Are green walls as ‘green’ as they look? An introduction to the various technologies and ecological benefits of green walls. J Green Build. 2009; 4:3–18.
  22. Biophilic streets: a design framework for creating multiple urban benefits, Agata Cabanek, Maria Elena Zingoni de Baro & Peter Newman, Sustainable Earth volume 3, Article number: 7 (2020)
  23. Biophilic Street Concept_©httpsrenearchitectureconcept. Tumblr. compost176448691825c
  24. Southwest Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills with the Willamette River October 2009

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